What is DNS? How Does It Work and Functions?

In this technological era, you may often hear the term DNS. So, you already know what DNS means? If you’re not an IT person, it’s only natural that you don’t know. But you better not catch up. You must know what DNS is, what DNS functions and how it works. DNS or an abbreviation of Domain Name Server is a system that can change the URL on a website into an IP address. Without DNS, you have to manually type in your own IP address, in full when you want to visit other websites.

So you could say DNS is a system that can simplify your work. Because you only need to know the domain name of the website to enter the address bar. Later, DNS will automatically translate the domain to an IP address that the computer can understand. For example, you want to access “Google”, now instead of having to write 172.217.0.142 into the address bar, you just need to enter the word google.com, makes it easier right?

Knowing How DNS Works

Well, previously discussed the definition, function and components of DNS. Then how does it work? You need to know that this DNS will work gradually. Starting from the process of requesting information or also known as DNS Query. Then there are several other steps such as DNS recursion, root name servers, TLD name servers to authoritative name servers. Now, to know all that, let’s discuss them one by one.

DNS Query

Starting from DNS Query, technical terms are indicated for requesting information about an IP Address. This stage will start when you type the URL address into your address bar. Next, the DNS server will look for information about filehost. If the information you are looking for cannot be found, the server will try to find the information or record the information that has been recorded in the system (cache). At this initial stage there are also 3 types of DNSQuery, namely Recursive queries, Iterative queries and non-recursive queries. The following is what each means:

  • Recursive query

The user will provide a DNS Resolver and the next host must provide an answer. So there are 2 possible answers that will be given. First, DNS will provide the relevant information after searching on the root server or authoritative name servers. Second, your browser will display an error message if the information is not found.

  • Iterative query

Here the user will enter the hostname. Then the DNS Resolver will look for the associated cache in memory. If unsuccessful, then DNS Resolver will look for information about the root server and authoritative name servers closest and relevant to the DNS Zone.

  • Non recursive query

It is a process of finding correct information. Of course, this type does not require searching on the root server or authoritative name servers because the data sought will be stored in the cache.

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DNS Recursor or DNS Recursive Resolver

DNS Recusor is the first step in the process of finding information. When the user enters the url and does not find the cached results in the cache, the system will start looking for other information in the cache of the internet provider or Internet Service Provider (ISP).

Root Name Server

Well, if it turns out that the information you are looking for cannot be found at your ISP then the system will help you by finding the information you need through the root server. Where the root name server itself is a database that can answer questions about domain names and IP addresses. This server does not have the correct answer for the information it is looking for. But the server can continue to ask those who know better. In this world there are 13 functioning root servers and the alphabetical order is from A to M. Now, the root servers are managed directly by an organization called the Internet Systems Consortium, Verisign, University of Maryland, ICANN, and the US Army Research Laboratory.

TLD Name Server

Furthermore, after the root server name, the system will read what kind of information it is looking for from the top level domain. For each TLD like .com, .org, .edu, .id, .au, etc., of course, have a specific server. By reading this information, the system will continue to look for more information to the server that actually has the data being sought.

Authoritative Name Server

Now, if you have found where the intended server is, then the authoritative name server arrives. This type of survey has a lot of complete information about the destination website. When the requested information matches the results, the browser will display the requested website or page from the beginning. Of course the search results will take some time. The search process will even be repeated to ensure that the information that appears is up to date. But you also need to know that this information will be cached later if the query process is fast. Well, that’s a discussion of DNS starting from what it means, what is its function, what are its advantages, to how it works. For those of you who still don’t understand, that’s fine, because you really can’t understand DNS.

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Source : Apa Itu DNS? Bagaimana Cara Kerja serta Fungsinya?